Grid InterACtive Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Driven Solar Water Pumping System

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The design of 5G 4-element antenna array system with the capability of switching its operation between right hand circular polarization (RHCP) and left-hand circular polarization (LHCP) is proposed. The DP-reconfigurability is achieved by electronically switching two PIN-diode pairs in the feeding circuit, which consists of a branch line coupler and two feeding arms. The proposed configuration reduces the number of tuning elements and allows the use of imperfect PIN diodes at millimeter-wave frequency. The fabricated prototype exhibits a 3-dB axial ratio bandwidth from 27.2 to 28.35 GHz.


????????? Dual polarization (CP) is the key feature in antenna design to mitigate the misalignment and multipath interferences. This is also applicable for the forthcoming Fifth Generation (5G) mobile network. Unfortunately, the device-to-device (D2D) communication between two DP radiators can suffer from extremely low polarization efficiency if the rotating mode is opposite. To resolve this issue, DP antennas with switchable rotating mode should be used. There are two critical issues when adapting these designs for 5G applications at millimeter-wave (mm-Wave). First, 5G antennas require high gain, thus array configuration is used, which requires a large number of PIN diodes and biasing components. More importantly, the PIN diode performance is significantly degraded when increasing the operating frequency, which severely affects the antenna performance. For these reasons, there has not been any mmWave reconfigurable DP antenna in the literature that is applicable to 5G D2D communication. Although there are

some CP antennas which have been studied for mm-Wave for different applications, it is emphasized that they are nonreconfigurable or the designs require multiple input ports to switch between 2 CP modes, which add significant complexity when integrating to 5G feeding circuit. In this letter, a polarization-reconfigurable array for 5G applications at 28 GHz is presented. This 4-element antenna array can switch its operation between 2 rotating modes (RHCP and LHCP) using only 4 PIN diodes in the feeding circuit. A branch-line coupler and open-ended stub are appropriately arranged in the feeding circuit to allow the use of imperfect PIN diodes and reduce the number of used diodes, and this this is the main contribution of this work. As a result, this configuration reduces the insertion loss and improves the matching of the feeding circuit. Therefore, the proposed configuration allows the utility of practical PIN diodes at mm-Wave to generate LHCP or RHCP operation, a feature that none of the previously reported approaches could achieve.? The targeted frequency band is 27.5- 28.35 GHz, which is approved by the U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) for 5G applications.


  • Printed slotted antenna
  • Microstrip patch antenna capable of working in up-to 1 to 2 bands only


  • reconfigurable CP antennas have been reported extensively in the literature, using variety of structures such as crossed dipole, patch, radiating arms and slot, however only for low frequency applications. All these designs utilize single-element structure with PIN diodes that exhibit nearly ideal performance in the microwave frequency range.


In this paper, the radiators consist of 4 patch antennas resonating at 28 GHz. The design uses Roger Duroid 5880 substrate (relative permittivity ?r = 2.2 with estimated tan? ? 0.0025 at 28 GHz). The simulation, modelling and optimization are conducted using the ANSYS High Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS).


  • There are many advantages of this tri-band MIMO antenna such as the small volume, light weight and easy integration, low cost, easy fabrication.


It has good application value in modern wireless communication systems.


  • ANSYS HFSS v14


A polarization-reconfigurable antenna array using PIN diodes has been proposed at 28 GHz. A branch-line coupler and opened stub are adopted in the feeding circuit to reduce the number of used diodes. This configuration also allows PIN diodes with non-ideal performance to be used at mm-Wave. RHCP and LHCP operations are realized using two pairs of diodes. The measurements have confirmed that the proposed design can support CP reconfigurability across 27.528.35 GHz for 5G applications.


[1] M. N. Tehrani, M. Uysal, and H. Yanikomeroglu, “Device-todevice communication in 5G cellular networks: challenges, solutions, and future directions,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 52, pp. 86-92, 2014.

[2] L. Ge, X. Yang, D. Zhang, M. Li, and H. Wong, “PolarizationReconfigurable Magnetoelectric Dipole Antenna for 5G Wi-Fi,” IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, vol. 16, pp. 1504-1507, 2017.

[3] H. H. Tran, N. Nguyen-Trong, T. K. Nguyen, and A. M. Abbosh, “Bandwidth Enhancement Utilizing Bias Circuit as Parasitic Elements in a Reconfigurable Circularly Polarized Antenna,” IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, vol. 17, pp. 1533-1537, 2018.

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