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In this paper, the low-density parity-check code and 256 QAM of new radio (NR) technology were applied to meet the high reliability and high data-rate requirements of 5G communications systems. In addition, we propose a data detection scheme based on a log-likelihood ratio (LLR) at the bit level to improve the reliability. The simulation results show that the proposed data detection scheme can improve the error rate and throughput of a conventional system. As a channel-coding scheme, LDPC channel coding is applied instead of turbo coding used in 4G LTE. As the modulation, 256 QAM is applied instead of 64 QAM.
????????? Currently, 5th-generation (5G) mobile systems are being developed following the Long Term Evolution (LTE) and LTE-Advanced systems. The requirements for 5G include improvements in the data rates, increases in the system capacity, much lower latency, and much higher connectivity density (such as internet of things; IoT). The primary reason for pursuing the development of 5G systems is that the amount of mobile data traffic is expected to reach levels 1,000 times higher by the year 2020 when compared to traffic levels in 2010. In order to improve data rates, a straight forward means is the use of higher-order modulation, which can increase the data rate within a given bandwidth. In LTE and LTE Advanced systems, quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK), 16- quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM), and 64-QAM are being used for the symbol modulation of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). Furthermore, 256-QAM entry has been recently discussed mainly in the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP). The maximum bandwidth utilization of 256-QAM is in principle eight times that of QPSK, although the higher-order modulation scheme is at the cost of robustness to noise and interference. However, the combination of channel coding and the higher-order modulation, i.e., modulation and coding scheme (MCS), will be more efficient additionally, countless use cases with a wide variety of applications will need to be supported.
- Heterogeneous network (HetNet) and small cell enhancement (SCE) approach is to deploy a denser infrastructure that includes support by a low-power evolved Node B (eNB).
- Three-dimensional (3D) beamforming has been also considered for enhancing system performance, which can adapt the antenna beam individually for each user equipment (UE) in the elevation domain, i.e., UE-specific elevation beamforming.
- The cell radius covered by a small cell will be short; therefore, it is expected that such a small cell environment could mitigate the fading impact.
- The use of HetNet, SCE, and 3D beamforming and so on enhances the introduction of a higher-order modulation scheme, since these technologies can increase the received SINR. Previously, we proposed a OFDM-based 256-, 1024-, and 4096-QAM and demonstrated the fundamental transmission performance under static propagation condition. However, there are uncertainties in the robustness against the multipath fading propagation conditions.
As a channel-coding scheme, LDPC channel coding is applied instead of turbo coding used in 4G LTE. As the modulation, 256 QAM is applied instead of 64 QAM. The use of higher-order modulation is an important approach for increasing data rates within a limited bandwidth. In this paper, we demonstrate the performance of the orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM)-based 256-QAM. we propose a data detection scheme based on a log-likelihood ratio (LLR) at the bit level to improve the reliability. The simulation results show that the proposed data detection scheme can improve the error rate and throughput of a conventional system.
The millimeter-wave supports wide bandwidth, and the short wavelength of it enables the miniaturization of antennas. Therefore, millimeter-wave based mobile communication systems can be equipped with more antennas in the same space as long-term evolution (LTE) base stations. However, short wavelengths can cause high path loss and low signal to noise radio (SNR).? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
BLOCK DIAGRAM EXPLANATION
a block diagram of the OFDM-based transmission model consisting of a single branch. The channel between the transmitter and receiver is modeled by a typical additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) and multipath fading channel. At the transmitter side, the baseband signals are encoded by turbo coding. The encoded signals are mapped to 256- or 1024-QAM by symbol modulation. OFDM modulation computes the inverse fast Fourier transform (IFFT) of the input QAM signals. Finally, cyclic-prefix insertion is used as a typical OFDM transmission. On the receiver side, first the cyclic-prefix is removed. Then, OFDM demodulation computes the fast Fourier transform (FFT) of the received signals to separate each subcarrier component that is then de-mapped to QAM. Each component signal is demodulated by symbol demodulation. After Viterbi decoding, the original baseband signals are detected.
MATLAB 2018 and above
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