Commutation Torque Ripple Reduction In BlDC Motor using Modified Sepic Converter

Description

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Stacking layers of microstrip patches to improve gain of 9.6dB for a two-layer Circular polarization (CP) stack. which resulted in a measured CP gain of 10.2dB. Additionally, all of the previous work used a coaxial probe to feed the element while the element considered here uses proximity coupling by microstrip lines as the feeding mechanism. The element was designed using commercial software and was fabricated at the scaled frequency of 1-10 GHz to facilitate testing and tuning of the antenna. The antenna consists of two layers of substrate (E, = 2.2) and two thick layers of foam with a low dielectric constant (E,= 1.08). The design and the simulation will be performed using High Frequency structure simulator (HFSS) tool.

INTRODUCTION

Electronic scanning is defined as a method of positioning an electromagnetic beam in space by electronic means with the antenna aperture remaining fixed in space and no mechanical mechanism involved in the scanning process. Admittedly, the mechanical mechanism has numerous disadvantages such as a complex high maintenance mechanical structure, slow orientation speed, high power requirements and large physical size. With electronic scanning radar, it is possible to obtain practically instantaneous slewing of an antenna beam to any position in a designated sector. Steerable antenna arrays are used in electronic scanning radar. In many applications, it is desirable to use phased array antennas, especially in aviation and spatial applications. In the late 1970s, microstrip antenna starts its journey and by the starting of 1980s, microstrip antennas were fully in operation for antenna design and modeling. For the last few decades microstrip antennas or printed antennas are extensively used for their inbuilt advantages like low profile, light weight, low cost and ease of fabrication. Microstrip antenna consists of a conducting or radiating patch on one side of the substrate and ground plane on the other side.[3]. For its advantages, microstrip antenna type is chosen for our basic array antenna design. Despite their multiple advantages, microstrip antennas have limitations as narrow bandwidth and low gain. However, many of their limitations have been overcome by using different techniques. We can mention multilayer structures, broad folded flat dipoles, curved line and spiral antennas, impedance matched resonator antennas, resonator antennas with capacitive coupled parasitic patch element, log periodic structures, modified shaped patch antenna (H-shaped ).

EXISTING SYSTEM

  • Steerable antenna arrays are used in electronic scanning radar
  • Phased array antennas

DISADVANTAGES

  • The mechanical mechanism has numerous disadvantages such as a complex high maintenance mechanical structure, slow orientation speed, high power requirements and large physical size.
  • Not capable of working in mm wave applications.
  • Less reception due to high return loss.

PROPOSED SYSTEM

A multi-layer, light weight wideband CP antenna of microstrip patches to improve gain of 9.6dB for a two-layer Circular polarization (CP) stack. which resulted in a measured CP gain of 10.2dB. operating in L-band is reported for airborne applications. In this communication, a multi-layer wideband CP antenna is presented for Wi-MAX and C-band applications also.

ADVANTAGES

The proposed technique permits to obtain better value of bandwidth. In fact, by tuning air gap thickness, the resonant frequency of the microstrip structure is varied and the antenna bandwidth can be enhanced. In addition, better out-of-band rejection will be achieved in the proposed design.

  • The multilayer technique gives a good gain value which equals to 16.6dB for air gap thickness of 4 mm separating two FR-4 layers. It has increased by 10.5 dB, besides the bandwidth has also raised by 278 MHz which gives us a value of 440MHz.

APPLICATIONS

  • It has good application value in modern wireless communication systems.
  • Electronic scanning radar application

REFERENCE

[1] Wu, Q., Liu, M., & Feng, Z. R. (2008, July). A millimeter-wave conformal phased microstrip antenna array on a cylindrical surface. In 2008 IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium (pp. 1-4). IEEE.

[2] Preston, S. L., Thiel, D. V., Lu, J. W., O?keefe, S. G., & Bird, T. S. (1997). Electronic beam steering using switched parasitic patch elements. Electronics Letters, 33(1), 7-8.

[3] kumar Deb, P., Moyra, T., & Bhowmik, P. (2015, February). Dual band multilayer E-shape microstrip patch antenna for C-band and X-band. In Signal Processing and Integrated Networks (SPIN), 2015 2nd International Conference on (pp. 30-34). IEEE.

[4] Parmar, P. B., Makwana, B. J., & Jajal, M. A. (2012, May). Bandwidth enhancement of microstrip patch antenna using parasitic patch configuration. In Communication Systems and Network Technologies (CSNT), 2012 International Conference on (pp. 53-57). IEEE.

[5] Chater, N., Mazri, T., & Benbrahim, M. (2017, April). Design and simulation of microstrip patch array antenna for electronic scanning Radar application. In Wireless Technologies, Embedded and Intelligent Systems (WITS), 2017 International Conference on (pp. 1-5). IEEE.

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