Due to many people dying in a mine accident, mine safety plays a key role in the mine production process. By virtual of recent advancements in the Internet of Things, this paper proposes an intelligent monitoring system for coal mines, which aims at monitoring the coal mine production process. The proposed sensor network architecture is completed based on Arduino and LORA technology. The sense nodes’ work cycle, powered by batteries, is extended by a specific work model. The position of miners can be obtained through inquiry routing tables of network nodes. The management system is designed to provide services for mine managers. The proposed system can monitor the process of mining intelligently and warn miners and managers immediately when dangerous issues emerge, such as gas leaking and sudden temperature rise.
An accident is any uncertain activity due to unavoidable circumstances and the carelessness of some people. This incident is happening continuously all around the world. A large number of workers (approximately 2.3 million) die each year worldwide, 350,000 because of occupational accidents and approximately 2 million because of occupational diseases. Occupational health is defined as an area of application in which the effects of work-life on health are investigated. A public health approach, using the notion of occupational health represents a partial understanding of health, and leads to defining workplace and work-life as outside of public health. The reasons for that are that citizens are seen not as workers but as consumers and that work-life is moved out of the healthcare field. This causes occupational health to detach from public health when organizing healthcare services. The basic area where problems arise in terms of workers’ health and safety is the production activities phase. Production activities consist of main activities such as excavation, ground support, and haulage as well as activities such as electrical maintenance, establishing and managing pressurized room networks, communication and signalization systems, and maintenance and repair of various machines and equipment. In particular, accidents in coal mining-related to collapses, pit fires, firedamp and coal dust explosions, haulage, and mechanization frequently occur in underground pits. Thus they end up with many complications physically.
The major problem identified is that there are numerous accidents occurring in the coal mines due to improper maintenance and inadequate monitoring of the mining activities. These led to numerous life losses and immeasurable resource losses. There is no proper early detection of the uncertainty in the coal mines. Coal mining has been a very dangerous activity. The principal hazards are mine wall failures and vehicle collisions; underground mining hazards include suffocation, gas poisoning, roof collapse, and gas explosions. Chronic lung diseases, such as pneumoconiosis (black lung) were once common in miners, leading to reduced life expectancy. In some mining countries, black lung is still common. However, in lesser developed countries and some developing countries, many miners continue to die annually, either through direct accidents in coal mines or through adverse health consequences from working under poor conditions.
In hazardous environments, industrialized accidents occur. This consequence may be very serious and it causes loss of environment, property, and life. For moral, legal, & financial reasons hazardous environmental safety & security is more important in a wireless sensor network in an industrial site, the deployment of distributed point source where the dangerous parameters used, produced, and stored are described in seven characteristics, Fundamental aspects for estimating and mission method were identified. For measurement of temperature using Virtual Instrumentation is by Automatic Process Control in many industries. Some project sources in WSN systems that monitor coal mines are as follows:
- ZIGBEE BASED INTELLIGENT HELMET FOR COAL MINERS
- Design of Coal Mine Intelligent Monitoring System Based on ZigBee Wireless Sensor Network, 2016
- An Event Reporting and EarlyWarning Safety System Based on the Internet of Things for Underground Coal Mines: A Case Study, 2017
- Application of WSN Fire Monitoring System in Coal Mining, 2017
- Design Of Underground Coal Mine Monitoring System, 2018
There are existing coal mine alert systems that are built using sensors and WSN. The coal mine intelligent monitoring system, through the minefield of ZigBee nodes, collects a variety of wireless data, through the switch to downhole monitoring sites which adopts a ring network connection that can communicate conveniently. In addition, the system sets up a backup underground control and monitoring stations. The data is transmitted using an Ethernet connection. It includes a wireless data acquisition subsystem based on the ZigBee network, an industrial Ethernet transmission subsystem, and a remote monitoring system. My safety systems based on IoT seamlessly integrate gas sensing monitoring, miner tracking, and cloud computing to create an intelligent loop of safety through analytics. IoT utilizes BLE for transmitting data from Arduino modular sensors. The cloud is helpful for determining the service state of the mine and for sharing information. The coal mine fire monitoring system is based on Zig-bee technology and discusses the network data transmission process in the system. When the system is applied to an actual coal mine, it achieves a sound fire monitoring effect. The wireless sensor network (WSN) coal mine fire monitoring system consists of three subsystems as data acquisition subsystem, control center subsystem, and emergency response subsystem. With sensor nodes as the basic unit, the WSN is divided into five parts: sensor module, treatment module, wireless communication module, location module, and power supply module. The system can monitor the air temperature, humidity, and smoke concentration of fire in the coal mine, and provide an effective basis for the monitoring department to make decisions on fire prevention and control measures. These basic systems do not rely on the cloud for entire data logging, data acquisition, and data processing. They completely depend on the WSN that transmits data to nodal points, not the cloud. This may make the system unreliable in emergency situations. The data rate transmission and governing of these data is done at a faster rate during emegencysuitations
this project is that Iot detects the uncertainty in the environment beforehand using data analysis reports the situation to the concerned authority and the miners. The system also considers the emergency situations at hand to alert the miners quickly as possible. This project serves the aspect of “Prevention is better than Cure”
- Easy to monitor & control
- BY using LORA High efficiency with long-range communication
- IoT Protocol Communication
- SMS is sent using PUSH BULLET APP
- And data will be stored in the cloud
BLOCK DIAGRAM EXPLANATION:
In this project we are going to go the coal miners’ security system using LORA and the cloud why we are using LORA because we don’t have an internet system in the underground it is difficult to transmit the data collected by the sensors by using LORA we can transmit the data up to 10km but in our project, we are using the range of 80m due to cost issues and after receiving the data by node MCU which will upload the data to the cloud and if the parameters reach the threshold limit we got SMS.
- DHT11 sensor
- Co2, smoke sensor
- Heartbeat sensor
- Methane sensor
- LORA pair
- node MCU
- Windows PC
- Arduino ide
- Embedded c