Commutation Torque Ripple Reduction In BlDC Motor using Modified Sepic Converter and Three Three-Level NPC Inverter

Description

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A wide-band slot antenna at 28 GHz for the approaching 5G wireless applications is configured and manufactured in this paper. This antenna takes in identically positioned rectangular patches with squared slots at the lower border of the mobile substrate. The antenna works in a 1.0683 (27.58?28.649) GHz bandwidth at 28 GHz and 1.4306 (23.213-23.643) GHz. The isolation is further desirable than 23.4 dB and -28.3 dB for the higher and lower frequencies, respectively among antenna elements. The slot antenna is planned and optimized through HFSS software as well as by measurement. The results from simulation and measurement are in a good agreement in the meaning of gain.

INTRODUCTION

????????? The rapid proliferation of wireless communications systems, the limited electromagnetic spectrum has become more and more congested. On the other hand, it is widely recognized that the current assigned bands are far from being fully utilized. Accordingly, the development of smart communication systems to efficiently use the spectrum resource has attracted significant attention. Patch antennas are susceptible to working in multi-bands. This is performed by loading slots, slits or shortening pins in the patch. When the slots are implanted at the maximum magnetic field location, the maximum effect of loading is gained. The slot antenna introduced in our work is varied from other usual antennas to coincide the obligations of the prevalent 5G wireless communication system. Other work achieved by various researchers for designing 5G antennas, arrays. In our work, we originate a novel principle of a compacted slotted microstrip antenna at 28/38 GHz which is appropriate for the coming 5G wireless communication. For super utilization of practicable handset space, a rectangular shape of two elements slotted microstrip antenna is presumed.

EXISTING SYSTEM

  • Port MIMO Antenna
  • Microstrip patch antenna capable of working in limited bands only
  • Array Antenna

DISADVANTAGES

  • Need of Complex Bias Networks to reach dual band utilization for dual band allocation
  • Not capable of working in mm wave applications.
  • Less reception due to high return loss.

PROPOSED SYSTEM

In this paper, a novel integrated two slotted patch antenna operated at 23 GHz and 28 GHz with DGS was introduced complying with the upcoming 5G mobile communication systems. The compact mm-wave two element MIMO antenna covered a wide frequency band of 1.0683 (27.58 ? 28.649) GHz at 28 GHz and 1.4306 (23.213? 23.643) GHz at 23 GHz with a gain of 5.4 dBi and 5.7 dBi respectively. Expected results such as S-parameters, antenna gain, and radiation efficiency were calculated and measured, and they can coincide the obligations of 5G systems.

ADVANTAGES

  • In the high frequency band, the antenna gain will increase. Moreover, the radiated efficiency will decrease at the higher band. This may be occasioned by the reality that the directivity increases at the higher frequencies.
  • In addition, better out-of-band rejection will be achieving in the proposed design.

APPLICATIONS

  • It has good application value in modern wireless communication systems.
  • Cognitive radio systems

SOFTWARE REQUIRED

  • ANSYS HFSS v14

CONCLUSION

A novel integrated two slotted patch antenna operated at 28 GHz and 38 GHz was introduced complying with the upcoming 5G mobile communication systems. The compact mm-wave two element antenna covered a wide frequency band of 1.0683 (27.58 ? 28.649) GHz at 28 GHz and 1.4306 (37.213? 38.643) GHz at 38 GHz with a gain of 7.88 dBi and 9.49 dBi respectively. Expected results such as S-parameters, antenna gain, and radiation efficiency were calculated and measured, and they can coincide the obligations of 5G systems. The mutual coupling among the two antenna element ports is superior to -27 dB.

REFERENCE

[1] J. Mitola and G. Q. Maguire, ?Cognitive Radio: making software radios more personal,? IEEE Pers. Commun., vol.6, no.4, pp.13-18, Aug. 1999.

[2] S. V. Hum and H. Y. Xiong, ?Analysis and Design of a Differentially-Fed Frequency Agile Microstrip Patch Antenna,? IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., vol. 58, no. 10, pp. 3122 – 3130. Oct. 2010.

[3] S. Genovesi, A. D. Candia, and A. Monorchio, ?Compact and low profile frequency agile antenna for multistandard wireless communication systems,? IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., vol. 62, no. 3, pp. 1019-1026, Mar. 2014.

[4] P.-Y. Qin, A. R. Weily, Y. J. Guo, T. S. Bird, and C. H. Liang, ?Frequency reconfigurable quasi-Yagi folded dipole antenna,? IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., vol. 58, no. 8, pp. 2742-2747, Aug. 2010.

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