Speed Control of Single Phase Induction Motor using AC Chopper| APWM

Description

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The need for larger bandwidths led the 5G to move to the frequencies in the millimeter wave bands. New challenges are posed to allow high gain antennas with considerable bandwidths to be used in both sensors and larger arrays. In this paper we present a four-element low profile microstrip antenna array, designed for multi band, which covers the 5G frequencies, exhibiting more gain. This compact antenna can be integrated into a 5G system.

INTRODUCTION

????????? Mobile communications have undergone a strong evolution over the last decades, being nowadays widespread in most of the world societies, used by more and more applications and services. Its fifth generation is expected to transform the role that telecommunications technology plays in the community, allowing even more connections, capacity, and mobility, enabling to everyone be connected in a bigger broadband network and also many other devices and things in the concept of Internet of Things (IoT). IoT will provide a communication platform in which everyone could communicate with everyone, and with everything, through a massive sensors deployment (in cars, trains, consumer electronics, sensors, houses, and other devices), with application markets in transportation, smart homes, agriculture, healthcare, education, safety and security systems, and so forth. The 5G is expected to significantly increase data transmission rates, which requires increasing the available bandwidth. This need for bandwidth has sparked interest in the mmWave frequency zone, where there is a vast portion of electromagnetic spectrum available. Nevertheless, in this region some challenges arise for wireless communications, such as free space path losses, or attenuation whether due to the various atmospheric constituents or due to the physical objects with which the wave interacts in the propagation zone.? However, there are several techniques that can be used to overcome some of these challenges, by using massive MIMO techniques, or through highly directive antennas with the ability to steer its radiation pattern, with one or multiple beams.

EXISTING SYSTEM

  • Printed slotted antenna
  • Microstrip patch antenna capable of working in up-to 1 to 2 bands only
  • Coupling reduction of MIMO antenna

DISADVANTAGES

  • Need of Complex Bias Networks to reach dual band utilization for dual band allocation
  • Not capable of working in mm wave applications.
  • Less reception due to high return loss.
  • Slots etched are equivalent to number of bands.

PROPOSED SYSTEM

In this work a compact antenna consisting of a four microstrip slot antenna array is presented, being a simple, robust, and low-profile solution, with a considerable gain, for 5G applications, namely in IoT sensors.

ADVANTAGES

  • The microstrip slot antennas have as major advantages its low profile and simplicity, easiness of manufacture, the robustness structure, the ability to achieving considerable bandwidths and to producing directional or bidirectional radiation patterns, with low cross polarization levels.

APPLICATIONS

  • It has good application value in modern wireless communication systems. It will provide a communication platform in which everyone could communicate with everyone, and with everything, through a massive sensors deployment (in cars, trains, consumer electronics, sensors, houses, and other devices), with application markets in transportation, smart homes, agriculture, healthcare, education, safety and security systems, and so forth.

 

PROJECT DESCRIPTION

A four microstrip slot array in a 2?2 planar structure was designed for 28GHz frequency, using the substrate FR4, which has a dielectric constant ?r=3.38 and a thickness h=0.51mm. The distance between elements selected, which is a compromise between the obtained directivity and the overall antenna size, was 0.9? in the horizontal and 0.7? in the vertical plane.?? A feed network using microstrip lines has been created to feed properly, and in phase, each of the four slots, and also compensating the 180? rotation in the feeding direction between the two upper and the two lower slots.

SOFTWARE REQUIRED

  • ANSYS HFSS v1

CONCLUSION

In this paper a four-element slot array was presented, designed for 28GHz, to 5G applications. It shows a simple structure, relevant gain, and has a compact size which allow it to integrate in most of the sensors for the 5G communications. Moreover, using this structure satisfactory bandwidths can be achieved which are also a relevant requirement of the next generation of mobile systems.

REFERENCE

[1] Yu, H.; Lee, H.; Jeon, H. What is 5G? Emerging 5G Mobile Services and Network Requirements. Sustainability 2017, 9, 1848.

[2] G. A. Akpakwu, B. J. Silva, G. P. Hancke and A. M. Abu-Mahfouz, “A Survey on 5G Networks for the Internet of Things: Communication Technologies and Challenges,” in IEEE Access, vol. 6, pp. 3619-3647, 2018.

[3] Ramesh Garg, Prakash Bhartia, Inder Bahl, and Apisak Ittipiboon, Microstrip Antenna Design Handbook, Norwood, MA, Artech House, 2001.

[4] F. E. Tubbal, R. Raad and K. Chin, “A Survey and Study of Planar Antennas for Pico-Satellites,” in IEEE Access, vol. 3, pp. 2590-2612, 2015.

[5] M. Ur-Rehman, M. Adekanye, and H. T. Chattha, “Tri-band millimetre-wave antenna for body-centric networks,” Nano Communication Networks, 2018.

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